International Journal of medicine & biomedical sciences

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015

Published on: November, 2015
Published By: sunil pandey
Managing Editor, IJMBS
Institution: Pokhara University

This year Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2015) was awarded for the development of therapies against parasitic diseases. The prize was awarded to Youyou Tu "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria," and the other to William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura "for their discoveries concerning a novel medicine against infections caused by roundworm parasites."

Diseases caused by mosquito and parasites have had devastating effects on the world’s poorest nations Unhealthful mosquitoes with the Plasmodium parasite transmit malaria, a disease that causes fevers pyrexia and brain damage or death in severe cases. Although big force have been doing to eradicate malaria, relative incidences of the disease continued to increase in the 1960’s and the parasite was acquiring resistance against common antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine or Quinone. Malaria it causes over 450, 000 deaths every year, so it is clear that the development of a new highly important antimalarial drug is a comment contribution to public health. Interestingly, Youyou Tu, Chief Professor at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, discovered identified the active component for the novel antimalarial drug in the ancient age of Chinese Medicine. After testing a multitude of herbs suggested by ancient Chinese doctors, the scientist found that sweet wormwood, the extracts of the plant Artemisia annua, was highly potent at treating to the ill when prepared correctly. After analyzing the active ingredient she created a highly potent antimalarial drug Artemisinin, helps to kills the Plasmodium parasite early in its development.

Satoshi Omura, Professor Emeritus at Kitasato, catalyse the discovery of the drug against both diseases when he isolate and cultured thousands of new strains of Streptomyces bacteria producing antibacterial agents.

Bibliography:

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2015/campbell-facts.html

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2015/omura-facts.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/07/world/asia/tu-youyou-chinese-scientist-nobel-prize.html?_r=0

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-china-blog-34451386

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/06/science/william-c-campbell-satoshi-omura-youyou-tu-nobel-prize-physiology-medicine.html

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2015/press.html

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2015/tu-facts.html

http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/lymphaticfilariasis/gen_info/faqs.html

http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/onchocerciasis/

https://www.drew.edu/news/2015/10/05/drews-william-campbell-wins-nobel-prize-in-medicine

 


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