International Journal of medicine & biomedical sciences

Vol.2 Issue.1

Intestinal Parasitosis among School Going Children in Bhaktapur, Nepal

Sabnum Shrestha1*, Sulochana Laluwa1, Bimala Ranamagar1, Pramila Thapa1, Manoj Pradhan2, Nabaraj Adhikari1, Upendra Thapa Shrestha1

1 Department of Microbiology, Kantipur College of Medical Sciences, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

2 Department of Microbiology, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal


Background: Intestinal parasites continue to be an important cause of public health problems in the world, particularly among children living in developing countries. The study was aimed to assess the load of intestinal parasites among school going children of Bhaktapur district of Nepal.

Methods: A total of 184 stool samples were collected from school children of Bhaktapur district between the age group 3-14 years. The stools collected were examined by direct microscopy and confirmed by concentration methods (formal ether sedimentation technique).


Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the children was found to be 42.9% (79/184). Giardia lamblia was the most predominant parasite, showing the incidence of 35.7%, followed by Taenia spp 22.6% and Blastocystis hominis 14.3%.

Conclusions: High parasitic infection in this study area may be due to lack of pure drinking water, lack of health education, unhygienic condition and presence of livestock near home, which is a major public health threat among school going children resulting serious illness.

Vol.2 Issue.1

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adult population of Western Region of Nepal

Mahesh Prakash Bhatta1*, Bhupendra Raj Pandey1, Khusi Man Gurung1, Rasmita Nakarmi1, Kshamata Gurung1, Lal Bahadur Gurung1, Srijana Rana Magar1

1United Reference Laboratory, Pokhara, Nepal

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is major public health threat throughout the world, particularly among people living in low income nations like Nepal. It is a steroid hormone, vital for asserting calcium homeostasis and optimizing bone health. Decreased concentrations of vitamin D result in changes in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss, osteoporosis, and an increase in fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency is determined as a level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D reduces to less than 25ng per milliliter. The aim of this study was to review the vitamin D condition and population-based occurrence of vitamin D deficiency, in western region of Nepal, in adult. A secondary aim was to examine determinants of vitamin D deficiency and its occurrence by gender, ethnicity and other demographic factors within this population.

Methods: A cross sectional laboratory based experimental study was done in total of 2158 subjects (19-60yrs) who visited United Reference Laboratory from 20th July, 2014 to 17th December, 2015. Data were collected on subjects from that days visit, including age, sex, self -declared ethnicity and place where they live. Determination of vitamin D was performed in serum of subjects in fully automated Cobas e411 analyzer. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 20.0 software.

Results: Out of 2158 subjects (692 male, 1466 female), 1590 (73.68%) had vitamin D deficiency, whereas only 568 (26.32%) had optimum level of vitamin D. Females were more deficient than male by 5.29% (P=0.016). Deficiency of vitamin D was found significant in all season, but deficiency percentage increases during winter (81.62%) and spring (88.82%) as compared to autumn (57.07%) and summer (70.39%) (P=0.00). It was found that Brahmins were significantly more deficient of vitamin D as compared to other ethnic group (P=0.00).

Conclusion: There is high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in 73.68% of working adult population of Western Region of Nepal. This finding evinces that vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with gender, season, and ethnicity variable.

Vol.2 Issue.1

Prevalence rate of Raillietina cesticillus in domestic chickens of District Mardan, KPK, Pakistan

Tahir Rehman1*, Lal Zada1, Abbas Ahmad2, Muhammad Aurang Zeb3

1Department of Zoology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KPK, Pakistan
2Department of Pharmacy University of Malakand, KPK, Pakistan
3Department of Biochemistry, Hazara University, KPK, Pakistan


Background: This survey was conducted with the basic aim to find out the prevalence of Raillietina cesticillus in domestic chicken of district Mardan from August to March (2014-2015).

Methods: The gastrointestinal tracts were removed from the slaughtered chickens. Then cut longitudinally with the help of a scissor and its contents were washed and the presence of the adult parasite were observed.

Results: The total 689 samples of slaughtered chickens were collected, in which 125 were infected with the prevalence rate of 18.14%, likewise, the prevalence rate was recorded under different parameters in consideration of month, season, gender and area.

Conclusion: It was concluded that high rate of infestation with Raillietina cesticillus was found in district Mardan. Thus, it can be controlled and minimized by proper management and regular use of anti-helminthic medicines.


Vol.2 Issue.1

Involvement of Serratia marcescens along with Citrobacter freundii in causing septic arthritis

Narayan Dutt Pant1*, Manisha Sharma2

1 Department of Microbiology, Grande International Hospital, Dhapasi, Kathmandu, Nepal
2Department of Microbiology, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal


Involvement of Serratia marcescens and Citrobacter freundii in causing septic arthritis is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of septic arthritis of knee joint following a recent arthroplasty, due to dual infection by Serratia marcescens and Citrobacter freundii in a diabetic patient. The patient had recent history of undergoing knee arthroplasty for functional and structural restoration of the knee joint injured due to saw injury. Serratia marcescens and Citrobacter freundii are known as common hospital acquired pathogens but septic arthritis due to these organisms is very rare even in health care settings.

Vol.2 Issue.1

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene among Medical Students at Janaki Medical College Teaching Hospital

Khushbu Yadav1, Satyam Prakash2*

1Lecturer, Department of Microbiology, Krishna Medical Technical Research Center, Janakpurdham, Nepal
2*Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Janaki Medical College Teaching Hospital, Janakpurdham, Nepal

Background: Oral health habits are measures people learn and practice regularly in order to maintain good oral health or prevent oral diseases. The mouth is an integral part of the body, and there are oral manifestations of many systemic diseases that must be managed in both healthy and medically compromised people. Oral health knowledge is considered to be an essential requirement for health-related practices. A good quality of life is possible if students maintain their oral health and become free of oral disease.  Dental caries are increasing in developing countries day by day where preventive programs have not been implemented properly. The level of information on oral health knowledge and practices among medical students is unidentified and worthy of investigation in Nepal, and this study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge, attitude and practices on dental caries and oral hygiene among medical students studying at Janaki Medical College Teaching Hospital, Janakpurdham.

Methods: A standard structured closed-questionnaire was designed and distributed to medical students studying in MBBS programme to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice about dental caries and oral hygiene.

Results: Out of 330 medical students, 145 were male and 185 were female, of which male had the highest knowledge regarding dental caries which was found to be statistically significant. Most of the students had attitude of visiting once in year for dental check up. The highest number of students had once per day brushing habit in early morning with fluoride containing tooth paste.

Conclusions: The present study concluded that the knowledge and practice status of oral hygiene and dental caries among medical students was found to be satisfactory. More oral health education programs must be conducted for the control of oral diseases.


IndianScience IndianScience

SIF : 0.74

IF : 0.432