International Journal of medicine & biomedical sciences

Vol.1 Issue.4


Morphological, Physio-biochemical Properties and Antibiogram of the Clostridium chauvoei

Rubina Rais1*, Kanwar Kumar Malhi1*, Samita Giri1, Rahmatullah Rind1, Asghar Ali Kamboh1, Chandan Kumar2, Rani Abro3, Muhammad Rafique Rind4, Faiza Habib4

Clostridium chauvoei is one of the deadly micro-organism that causes disease in cattle and sheep. We tested Clostridium chauvoei on different culture media, physio-biochemical agents and antibiotics. The best grwoth of organism was observed on blood and nutrient agar at pH 7.2-7.5, and temperature in between 37-40ºC. No effect of centrifugation was observed. Fourteen different antibiotics were tested against the Clostridium chauvoei. Highly effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol, tetracycline, baquiloprim/sulphadimidine, erythromycin, gentamicin, compound sulphonamides

Vol.1 Issue.4


Preparation and Characterization of Liposomes and Ethosomes Bearing Indomethacin for Topical Drug Delivery

Bindu Malla1, Komal Malla2, Ajay Kumar Sah2, Anajali Koirala2, Sarita Karki2, Daya Ram Prajuli2, Bindu Thapa2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Gandaki Medical College, Kaski, Nepal

2Department of Pharmacy, School of Health & Allied Sciences, Pokhara University, Lekhnath-12, Kaski, Nepal

Liposomes and ethosomes, the novel drug delivery system, are starting to be widely applied in topical preparation. Several studies showed that indomethacin, an anti-inflammatory drug loaded liposomes, when given transdermally reduced the side effects and enhanced its efficacy against rheumatoid arthritis and musculo-skeletal disorders. The anti-inflammatory activity is directly proportional to the amount of drug that actually crosses the skin and particle size of vesicles directly determines the dermal delivery of drug substances. Indomethacin loaded liposomes were prepared by different methods and characterized by determining their size and entrapment efficiency. To improve the therapeutic outcome and prepare a formulation which is skin-friendly, liposomes and ethosomes veried according to drug:lipid ration and method of preparation. The entrapment efficiency was higher for ethosomes than liposomes. Furthermore, the incorporation of the vesicles in carbopol gel increased viscocity and stability of the formulation. Hence, these finding suggested that indomethacin loaded ethosomes and liposomes prepared by appropriate method using optimum drug lipid ration could be a novel and potent transdermal delivery system for safe and effective topical analgesics. 

Vol.1 Issue.4


Synthetic Derivatives of Artemisinin and Cancer

Amit Sarder1, Yuba Raj Pokharel1*

Faculty of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, South Asian University (A University run by 8 SAARC nations), New Delhi, 110021, India.

Curing of cancer or at least prolonging the life of a cancer patient can be done by the development of anticancer drugs which can kill the cancer cells selectively. Artemisinin (ART), a natural endoperoxide containing sesquiterpene lactone, is a naturally occurring antimalarial with potent anticancer properties. Despite high efficacy, the therapeutic value of ART is limited by its low solubility in oil and water, short half-life after administration, poor bioavailability etc. In order to avoid these limitations, several derivatives of artemisinin have been synthesized which are more active than the parent artemisinin molecule and also exhibit enhanced anticancer activity in nano-to-micro molar range. Thus, ART derivatives can be a good treatment option for cancer treatment. However, further research is needed in order to develop better ART derivatives with greater efficacies. Again, the use of ART derivatives in cancer treatment must be addressed by better understanding of the mechanism of action of the derivatives which will help to increase the clinical effectiveness of the derivatives. The aim of this review paper is to provide an overview about ART, its synthetic derivatives and their anticancer properties.

Vol.1 Issue.4


In silico Validation of Expressed Sequence Tags for Alternate Splice Variants of Human myo-inositol Oxygenase Gene

Jayendra Bajracharya1*, Manoj Pradhan2, Anju Bajracharya3

1 Department of Biochemistry, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences
2 Department of Microbiology, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences
3 Department of Pharmacy, Little Angels College of Higher Studies, JF Institute of Health Sciences

myo-Inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is an enzyme that catabolizes myo-inositol in humans. There is increased MIOX expression and increased MIOX activity in renal tubular cells in diabetic nephropathy. One potential mechanism of increased expression and activity of MIOX is the production of one or more highly stable alternative splice isoform of MIOX transcript. Based on the evidence gathered from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with MIOX protein sequence, we report that retention of intron 9 in MIOX transcript is a valid alternative splice mechanism. This alternative splice isoform is predicted to have higher stability than the canonical MIOX transcript. Higher stability of the alternative splice variant leads to increased production of MIOX protein isoform with retained structural and potentially, functional features of canonical MIOX protein. Production of this MIOX transcript isoform could be the mechanism of increased expression and activity of MIOX in renal tissues affected by diabetes mellitus. Alteration of the splice mechanism could be a new therapeutic target in prevention and treatment of complications of diabetes mellitus.

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